Software That Models the Hydraulic and Water Quality Behavior of Water Distribution Piping Systems
Developed by EPA's Water Supply and Water Resources Division, EPANET is software that models water distribution piping systems. It is a Windows 95/98/NT/XP program that performs extended-period simulation of the hydraulic and water quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks.
Pipe networks consist of pipes, nodes (pipe junctions), pumps, valves, and storage tanks or reservoirs. EPANET tracks the flow of water in each pipe, the pressure at each node, the height of the water in each tank, and the concentration of a chemical species throughout the network during a simulation period. Chemical species, water age, source, and tracing can be simulated.
EPANET provides an integrated computer environment for editing network input data, running hydraulic and water quality simulations, and viewing the results in a variety of formats. These include color-coded network maps, data tables, time series graphs, and contour plots.
EPANET is public domain software that may be freely copied and distributed.
- Handle systems of any size
- Compute friction head loss using the Hazen-Williams, the Darcy Weisbach, or the Chezy-Manning head loss formula
- Include minor head losses for bends, fittings, etc.
- Model constant or variable speed pumps
- Compute pumping energy and cost
- Model various types of valves, including shutoff, check, pressure regulating, and flow control
- Allow storage tanks to have any shape (i.e., surface area can vary with height)
- Consider multiple demand categories at nodes, each with its own pattern of time variation
- Model pressure-dependent flow issuing from emitters (sprinkler heads)
- Base system operation on simple tank level or timer controls as well as on complex rule-based controls
- Model the movement of a non-reactive tracer material through the network over time
- Model the movement and fate of a reactive material as it grows (e.g., a disinfection by-product) or decays (e.g., chlorine residual) over time
- Model the age of water throughout a network
- Track the percent of flow from a given node reaching all other nodes over time
- Model reactions both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall
- Allow growth or decay reactions to proceed up to a limiting concentration
- Employ global reaction rate coefficients that can be modified on a pipe-by-pipe basis
- Allow for time-varying concentration or mass inputs at any location in the network
- Model storage tanks as being complete mix, plug flow, or two-compartment reactors
EPANET can also be used to plan and improve a system's hydraulic performance. The software can assist with pipe, pump, and valve placement and sizing; energy minimization; fire flow analysis; vulnerability studies; and operator training.
The toolkit is useful for developing specialized applications, such as optimization or automated calibration models that require running many network analyses. It can simplify adding analysis capabilities to integrated network-modeling environments based on computer-aided design (CAD), geographical information system (GIS), and database packages.
A Windows Help file is available to explain how to use the various toolkit functions; it offers some simple programming examples. The toolkit also includes several different header files, function definition files, and .lib files that simplify the task of interfacing it with C/C++, Delphi, Pascal, and Visual Basic code.
The multi-species extension requires a new MSX input file in which the user specifies the mathematical expressions that govern the reaction dynamics of the system being studied. This approach allows users the flexibility to model a wide range of chemical reactions of interest to water utilities, consultants, and researchers. Examples include the auto-decomposition of chloramines to ammonia, the formation of disinfection by-products, biological re-growth including nitrification dynamics, combined reaction rate constants in multi-source systems, and mass transfer limited oxidation-pipe wall adsorption reactions.
EPANET-MSX is distributed in a compressed zip file that contains a command line executable, several libraries of functions, and a User’s Manual. The executable can be used to run water quality analyses without any additional programming effort. The function library can be used in conjunction with the existing EPANET Programmer’s Toolkit to develop customized applications. At this point in time, the software has not been integrated into a Windows interface, but this may happen at some point in the future.
e-mail to the University of Guelph; in the body of the e-mail, include the words “subscribe epanet-users” followed by your name.
Resource : http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/wswrd/dw/epanet.html
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